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Geologists use radioactive dating too young, how Old is the Earth

Neutron reactions do not change decay rates but, instead, transmute one nuclide into another. Kennedy addresses this problem.

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As discussed above, one feature of the Rb-Sr isochron diagram is that, to a great extent, it is self-diagnostic. This effect is most serious in the rims of the pillows and increases in severity with water depth.

If it sounds like circular reasoning, it is because this process in reality is based upon circular reasoning. The study of the Liberian diabase dikes, discussed above, is a good example of this practice. It only requires that the Sr isotopic composition, i. These isotopes have longer half-lives and so are found in greater abundance in older fossils.

Carbon dating has been used successfully on the Dead Sea Scrolls, Minoan ruins and tombs of the pharaohs among other things. There is a fourth type of decay that can be affected by physical and chemical conditions, though only very slightly.

The mathematical premise undergirding the use of these elements in radiometric dating contains the similar confounding factors that we find in carbon dating method. The problems inherent in radiometric dating often cause them to be so unreliable that they contradict one another rather than validating each other.

The assumptions are similar to the assumptions used in carbon dating. As discussed above in the section on Rb-Sr dating the simplest form of Rb-Sr dating i. This is the major flaw in radiometric dating, e.

We need to observe when the race begins, how the race is run are there variations from the course, is the runner staying within the course, are they taking performance enhancing drugs, etc. The question should be whether or not carbon can be used to date any artifacts at all?

This is some finite point in the future. Only then can you gauge the accuracy and validity of that race. It is clear that mixing of pre-existent materials will yield a linear array of isotopic ratios.

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Both are trace elements and rarely form minerals of their own. Finally, we need to be certain about the end or finish point.

It commonly substitutes for calcium in calcium minerals, such as the plagioclase feldspars. The data do not fall on any straight line and do not, therefore, form an isochron. If you blindly accept the Theory of Evolution, you are in danger of believing a fairytale for grownups called the Theory of Evolution. Thus the assumption of immense ages has not been proven. Other possible confounding variables are the mechanisms that can alter daughter-to-parent ratios.

Lava erupting earlier would come from the top of the magma chamber, and lava erupting later would come from lower down. The xenoliths, which vary in composition and range in size from single mineral grains to rocks as big as basketballs, do, indeed, carry excess argon in large amounts. There are no neutron reactions that produce the same result as either beta or alpha decay. There is no way to correct for this natural isotopic variation since there is no way to determine it. This belief in long ages for the earth and the evolution of all life is based entirely on the hypothetical and non-empirical Theory of Evolution.

We can only speculate on where Kofahl and Segraves obtained their numbers. Such samples are rare, and so nearly all modern Rb-Sr dating is done by the isochron method. This rules out carbon dating for most aquatic organisms, because they often obtain at least some of their carbon from dissolved carbonate rock. The fact remains that every living organism appears abruptly in the fossil record, fully formed without the transitional fossils that should be there if Darwinian evolution is true. Nuclear tests, nuclear reactors and the use of nuclear weapons have also changed the composition of radioisotopes in the air over the last few decades.

They have no charge and very small or possibly no rest mass. The Rb-Sr isochron method is most commonly used on igneous rocks, which form by cooling from a liquid.

While there are many problems with such dating methods, such as parent or daughter substances entering or leaving the rock, e. There is also evidence that many anomalies are never reported. Two cases where it appears that the half life is increasing with time are as follows. Clearly, it is important to have a good understanding of these processes in order to evaluate the reliability of radiometric dating.

How Old is the Earth

Scientists attempt to check the accuracy of carbon dating by comparing carbon dating data to data from other dating methods. If enough free neutrons did exist, they would produce other measurable nuclear transformations in common elements that would clearly indicate the occurrence of such a process. We can see that many varieties of minerals are produced from the same magma by the different processes of crystallization, and these different minerals may have very different compositions.

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We need not assume that the isotopes, assumed to be daughter isotopes, were in fact produced in the rock by radioactive decay. Carbon is a radioactive isotope of carbon. Most radioactive decay involves the ejection of one or more sub-atomic particles from the nucleus. Because these types of radioactive decay occur spontaneously in the nucleus of an atom, the decay rates are essentially unaffected by physical or chemical conditions. Secondly, you must have an observable time span so we can be certain nothing has affected the amount of the radioactive element being measured, boek uitgeven hoe werkt dating e.

Measurements of the Half-lives of Ra and Pa. It does suggest at least one aspect of the problem that could be researched more thoroughly. It is chemically similar to potassium and tends to substitute for that element in minerals in which potassium is a major constituent, such as potassium feldspar and the micas muscovite and biotite. Certainly this is not produced by an influx from outer space.

Second, Slusher has confused isotopes and elements. The data are straightforward albeit technically complex measurements that fall on a straight line, indicating that the meteorite has obeyed the closed-system requirement.

They point to minor changes within an organism, e. They come from deep within the mantle and were carried upward to the surface by the lava.

If this occurs, initial volcanic eruptions would have a preponderance of daughter products relative to the parent isotopes. Gamma rays very small bundles of energy are the device by which an atom rids itself of excess energy.